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Sunday, November 15, 2009


At the beginning, Ibn Hazm was a follower of Maliki since it was the dominant Madhab in Andalus at that time. Then he seems to be more attracted to Syafi`i Madhab because of Shafi`i`s feature that emphasizes on the texts and relies more on the Quran and Sunnah in drawing judgments. Later, Ibn Hazm left the Shafi`i and paid his attention to the school of Zahiri.[1] It was Mas`ud Ibn Suleiman (d. 429 AH), one of his teachers, who, perhaps, influenced his mind to incline towards Zahiri.[2] The latest was not a staunch follower of any former Madhab but favorable to the literal meaning in interpreting the texts. He opposed the allegorical interpretation of religious texts, preferring instead a grammatical and syntactical interpretation of the Qur'an. He granted cognitive legitimacy only to revelation and sensation and considered deductive reasoning insufficient in legal and religious matters. He did much to revitalize the Zahiri madhhab, which denied the legitimacy of legal rulings based upon qiyas (analogy) and focused upon the literal meanings of legal injunctions in the Qur'an and hadith. Many of his rulings differed from those of his Zahiri predecessors, and consequently Ibn Hazm's followers are sometimes described as comprising a distinct madhhab.[3] Another reason why he took the Zahiri School was to give respect to the texts for Ibn Hazm might have believed that the problems and the calamities that fell on his community were due to their disrespect for the Texts. Had the people respected the Texts in all their affairs, Andalusia would not have experienced political confusion.[4]

Ibn Hazm also has many followers and students, the famous among them were MuÍammad ibn Abi Nasr FutËh al-Azdi al-Humaidi al-AndalËsi (d.488H), Abu al-QÉsim Sa‘Êd ibn AÍmad al-Andalusi(d.463H), and Abu MuÍammad ÑAbd Allad ibn MuÍammad ibn al-ÑArabi.[5] He had a large number of the followers, who identified themselves with him, and were consequently called al-Hazmiyyah.[6]

Being a prolific writer, Ibn Hazm wrote many books on various disciplines, Logic, Psychology, Medicine, Ethic, Politics, Jurisprudence, and various topic of the Qur’Én and Sunnah. For example, in Psychology he wrote Tawq al-Hamamah (The Ring of the Dove) and KitÉb al-´AkhlÉq wa al-Siyar (The Book of Character and Behaviour). In Fiqh, he wrote the famous Al-IÍkam fi UÎul al-Ahkam (Judgement on the Principles of Ahkam).

His magnificent works are tantamount to what had been acquired by al Tabari. Luckily, we have acquaintance with some of his valuable works though many of them do not come down to us. It was said that Mu`tadad Ibn Ubbad, who reigned from 439-464 AH, ordered that his books should be burnt to ashes.
[1] Ibid.
[2] MaÍmËd ÑAlÊ ×imÉyah, Ibn ×azm wa Manhajuhu fÊ Dirasat al-AdyÉn (al-QÉhirah: DÉr al-MaÑÉrif, 1st edition, 1983), 48.
[3] http//wikipedia…..
[5] MaÍmËd ÑAlÊ ×imÉyah, Ibn ×azm wa Manhajuhu fÊ Dirasat al-AdyÉn (al-QÉhirah: DÉr al-MaÑÉrif, 1st edition, 1983), 47-48.
[6] [6] Ibn Hazm's al-Risalah al-Bahirah.4

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